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A-Z Vitamin and Supplement Dictionary

- A -

Acidophilus is a normal and important inhabitant of healthy human intestines. It can help control the growth of undesirable microorganisms entering the digestive system. In addition, research indicates Acidophilus can improve the digestion of lactose. Acidophilus helps prevent chronic constipation and improves digestion.

An important high energy compound, which is present in your muscle fibers. Especially used during the anabolic and anti-catabolic phase of working muscles.

Potential increase in ATP. Improves aerobic/anaerobic exercise if combined with vitamin B6.

Alpha Lipoic Acid is a sulfur-containing substance manufactured by your body and is beneficial because of its involvement in carbohydrate metabolism. Since Alpha Lipoic Acid deactivates both fat and water soluble free radicals, it protects lipoproteins and membranes, which is something no other antioxidant can do.

Amino Acids are the molecular building blocks of protein. Proteins are major structural and functional components of muscle tissue, skin, blood and the skeletal system. In addition, they play important roles in the production of hormones, enzymes and components of the immune system. Incomplete protein diets can be made complete by supplementing with foods that contain "essential" amino acids.

Synthetic male hormones.

Androstenedione is a hormone that occurs naturally in the body, and is one of those responsible for male characteristics. It is a metabolite of DHEA, and as such, a direct precursor to the male hormone testosterone. Supplementation with androstenedione increases blood levels of testosterone, which among other things, will lead to an increase in strength and muscle mass. As such, it is mainly of interest to athletes and bodybuilders, for whom it has the added benefits of increasing energy levels, improving levels of nitrogen retention and shortening muscle recovery time.

Nutrients that posess the capacity to chemically react with and neutralize harmful molecules such as free radicals, molecules or atoms that can chemically bond to and damage DNA, proteins, and cells. Free radicals are generated by infection, tobacco smoke, air pollutants, ultarviolet light, radiation, enviromental toxins and excessive food processing.

Historically, Apple Cider Vinegar has been used to alleviate arthritic stiffness, treat sore throats, acne, and other skin problems, reduce high blood pressure, relieve headaches, eliminate dandruff, relieve sunburn, and lower elevated cholesterol levels. The ancient Egyptians were thought to have used Apple Cider Vinegar for weight loss. Apple cider vinegar is a solution of acidic acid produced by fermentation of apples. It consists of acid, water, and small quantities of minerals.

Arginine is a non-essential amino acid which is abundant in protamines and histones, which are proteins associated with nucleic acids. This amino acid is used by the immune system to help regulate the activity of the thymus gland, which is responsible for manufacturing T lymphocytes. In the pancreas, Arginine is used to release insulin, and it is also a component of human growth hormone in the pituitary gland. Your body needs it for muscle metabolism and to aid in weight control since it facilitates the increase of muscle mass, while reducing body fat. Arginine is an important component in the healing and repair of soft tissue, the formation of collagen, and in the building of new bone and tendons.

Vitamin A is used for night vision, body tissue repair and maintenance.

 - B -

Bee Pollen is sometimes called Mother Nature’s natural energy booster. In fact, the Greeks called it the “nectar of the gods". Produced by the anthers of flowering plants, Bee Pollen is composed of 15 percent protein, and B complex vitamins, vitamin C, essential fatty acids, enzymes, carotene, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, potassium, manganese, sodium, plant sterols, and simple sugars. Bee Pollen is a favorite with athletes not only for its taste, but it helps increase energy levels, and enhance endurance and resistance before workouts or competitions. Bee Propolis, found on plants and collected by bees for the construction of their hives, is also a wonderful supplement that helps prevent bacterial infections.

This vitamin is used by the body for antibody and red cell formation, cell respiration, metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrate

This vitamin is used for circulation, growth, sex hormone production, metabolism of protein, fat and carbohydrate, and cholesterol level reduction.

This vitamin is used for antibody and steroid formation, conversion of carbohydrate, fat and protein into energy, and growth stimulation.

This vitamin is used for fat, protein metabolism (particularly Methionine and Tryptophan), antibody formation, and sodium potassium balance.

This vitamin is used for fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism, blood cell information, and fatty acid synthesis.

The preferred form of vitamin A. Acts as a natural antioxidant, and nutritionists today feel it is an important part of a balanced nutritional regiment.

A sterol (plant hormone) derived from crude germ oils. Increases growth hormone and natural testosterone levels in the body.

This vitamin is used for a mild stimulant, capillary maintenance.

This vitamin is used for fat, protein and carbohydrate metabolism, cell growth, and fatty acid production.

Bitter Orange comes from a flowering, fruit bearing evergreen tree found in Asia. In Mexico and South America the leaf is used as a tonic, a laxative, a sedative for insomnia, and to calm nerves. The peel is used for stomach aches and high blood pressure. In Europe, the Basque people use the leaves for stomach aches, insomnia, and palpitations and the Bitter Orange peel as an anti-spasmodic. In Chinese medicine, the peel of the immature fruit is used for indigestion, abdominal pain, constipation, and dysenteric diarrhea.

A mineral that not only aides in calcium absorption but also has been shown to double and triple blood levels of testosterones. Usual daily dosage is 3 mg.

Three amino acids (Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine) which are quickly absorbed by muscle tissue and help create a positive nitrogen balance thus promoting muscular growth

A naturally extracted digestive enzyme that may help accelerate tissue repair.

This vitamin is used for blood building, carbohydrate metabolism, energy, growth, muscle tone, circulation, maintanance of intestine, stomach, heart and appetite.

- C -

This vitamin is used for collagen production, bone and tooth formation, healing, digestion, red blood cell formation, infection and shock resistance, iodine conservation, and protection against vitamin oxidation.

Caffeine stimulates alertness, boosts energy and fights fatigue. It increases endurance during prolonged submaximal activity, thereby allowing fat cells to break down more readily during aerobic activity. Caffeine also makes a muscle contraction more forceful. It is commonly used as a stack with aspirin and ephedrine.

This mineral is used for bone and tooth formation, muscle growth and contraction, blood clotting, heart rhythm, and nerve transmission and tranquilizing.

Any of various neutral compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (as sugars, starches, cellulose) most of which are formed by green plants and which constitute a major class of animal foods.

An amino acid which encourages the body to burn stored fat for energy rather than carbohydrates.

This vitamin is used for fat and cholesterol metabolism, nerve transmission, lecithin formation, and liver and gall bladder regulation.

A mineral important in the metabolism of sugars and insulin production. Recent studies have shown that this mineral taken in 200 mcg (.2mg) daily will greatly increase lean body mass while decreasing fat.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid - one of the three fatty acids found in fish oil.

The main protein constituent of connective tissue and of the organic substance of bones.

This mineral controls oxidation of vitamin C, collagen, elastin, bone, hemoglobin, and red blood cell formation; and the body's healing processes.

A molecule that controls oxygen flow within cells and acts as a catalyst in the creation of energy.

Creatine is a nutrient found in a variety of foods. Creatine is a compound that is critical for ATP maintenance. When creatine stores are exhausted, the muscle runs out of energy, resulting in muscle weakness. Use 10-20 grams a day for a week and then 5-10 grams per day for a maintenance dose. It is recommended that you take creatine with a high-glycemic carb drink.
Results in greater strength & muscle growth. Allows for faster recovery between sets.

A chemical compound composed of amino acids and iron which acts as a carrier of oxygen with the mitochondria. Allows for more oxygen uptake by the cells, thus prolonging endurance.

- D -

To dry up, removing all the water, dehydrate.

Dehydroepiandrosterone - is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Primary function is to produce estrogen and testosterone.

The biologically active coenzyme of vitamin 12, necessary in the metabolism of fat, proteins and carbohydrates. Some studies have shown it to produce results in strength and size comparable to steroids.

A substance originally isolated from apricot kernels. Said to increase oxygen uptake and decrease recovery time between workouts.

This vitamin is used for metabolism of calcium and phosphorous, maintenance of nervous system, blood clotting, heart action, skin respiration and bone formation.

- E -

Essential Oils & Fatty Acids
Play essential roles in the regulation of many body functions and must be consumed in the diet.

Important minerals such as potassium, magnesium, sodium and calcium, that help provide continuity in the passage of fluid through your body.

A process whereby oil globules are broken down to such tiny size that they are able to disperse and suspend in water without separation.

This chemical has been proven to be both a powerful energizer and weight loss aid. Ephedrine is a powerful thermogenic agent that causes body temperature to rise and promotes the breakdown of fat. Ephedrine is a neurotransmitter that exerts a stimulating effect. It is commonly used as a stack with aspirin and caffeine.

Ephedra is the herbal form of ephedrine, found in many over-the-counter products such as cold and allergy medicines, and is mainly derived from the herb ma huang. Some dieters have taken to combining products containing ephedrine and the closely related pseudoephedrine with caffeine to get the same effect as the now-banned ephedra.

This vitamin is used as an antioxidant, increases oxygen availability, aging retardation, blood cholesterol reduction, strengthens capillary walls, lung protection, fertility, and muscle and nerve maintenance.

- F -

This vitamin is used for red blood cell formation, protein metabolism, appetite, body growth, and reproduction.

Separate and isolate amino acids not bound or linked to any other amino acids

- G -

An essential fatty acid derivative that your body breaks down to obtain energy. Regulates your cardiovascular system and may lower blood pressure.

A by-product of rice bran which helps increase lean body mass while decreasing fatty tissue. Also shown to help increase testosterone production.

Has properties of being a stimulant, anti spasmodic and antibiotic. Also helps lower your total cholesterol level.

Studied extensively in Europe for its ability to increase oxygen and blood flow to the brain. Has been linked to improvements in memory and mental alertness.

Highly prized Oriental herb reputed to give long life. Increases hormone production, improves heart rate, regulates blood pressure, improves sexual function and increases vitality.

Supplements derived from animal glands which help boost human gland function.

Used in the relief of arthritis.

Glutamine passes easily from the bloodstream into the brain, where it is then converted to Glutamic Acid. This conversion rids the brain of ammonia, an inhibitor of higher brain functions.

A tripeptide of glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine; fundamentally important in cellular respiration.

Applies to the amount of sugar in one's blood. The normal range is 70-110mg/100 ml.

Of special value as a source of creatine which is essential for muscle function, breaking down glycogen and freeing energy. Produces glycogen which mobilizes glycogens (a stored energy source of glucose) from the liver. Builds up the immune system, producing immunoglobulins and antibodies. Acts as a nitrogen pool for the syntheses of nonessential amino acids. Effective for hyperacidity, (used in many gastric antacid agents).

A stimulant that increases your body's tonic properties. Stimulates secretion of bile. A key component of the emulsion of your body's fat.

Unprocessed caffeine.

- H -

A natural citric acid which may help curb the appetite according to the studies.

- I -

A purine nucleotide that promotes oxygen transport and the release of oxygen molecules into the red blood cells. Also promotes production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which is essential for muscle function.

This vitamin is used for cholesterol and fat metabolism, cholesterol reduction, lecithin information, hair growth, and retardation of artery hardening.

A technique of separating materials by reversible interchange between ions of like charge.

This mineral is used for hemoglobin production, stress and disease resistance.

- L -

Indispensable of optimum growth. Stimulates the release of growth hormone, important to muscle metabolism; acts as a vehicle for transport, storage and excretion of nitrogen. Increases muscle mass while decreasing the amount of body fat. Plays an important role in post-injury problems such as weight changes, nitrogen balance and tissue healing. Increases collagen, the main supportive fibrous protein found in bone, cartilage and other connective tissue. Stimulates the immune system. Combats physical and mental fatigue. Increases spermatogenesis. Used in the treatment of hepatic (liver) disorders. Transforms to L-Ornithine and Urea. Promotes the detoxification of ammonia which is poisonous to living cells.

L-Carnitine is essential for fat burning and so then for weight loss. It is the forklift that takes fat to the fat incinerators in our cells called the mitochondria. Fat must make it to the mitochondria or you cant burn it off no matter what you do. Once fat makes it to the mitochondria it is transformed into energy carnitine creates the transport for this phenomenon.

Especially important in brain metabolism. Function as a brain fuel, serving as an excitatory neurotransmitter. Transports potassium across the blood brain barrier. Combines to form L-Glutamine and in the process picks up ammonia radicals. This is the only method the brain has of detoxifying ammonia. Instrumental in the metabolism of other amino acids. Metabolizes sugars and fats. Increases the blood sugar level; used in the treatment of hypoglycemia.

Sustains mental ability involved with brain metabolism. Along with L-Glutamic acid is used as a brain fuel. Used in the treatment of alcoholism, can protect against alcohol poisoning. Has been used in the treatment of schizophrenia and senility.

Applies to substances essential for fat metabolism, promoting the physiologic utilization of fat.

Metabolized in muscle tissue. Promotes healing of skin and broken bones. Lowers elevated blood sugar levels. Should always be in well-balanced proportion with L-Valine and Isoleucine.

Inhibits the growth of viruses. Used in the treatment of Herpes Simplex virus. Produces L-Carnitine which improves stress tolerance and fat metabolism and has an antifatigue effect. Promotes bone growth by helping to form collagen, the fibrous protein which makes up bone, cartilage and other connective tissue.

Plays an important role in the function of the adrenal, pituitary and thyroid glands. Generates red and white blood cells. Elevates mood. Is used in the treatment of anxiety, depression and insomnia. Produces melanin, the skin and hair pigment. Produces Norepinephrine, an appetite inhibitory neurotransmitter that suppresses appetite. Stimulates the release of growth hormone which causes muscle growth and reduces body fat.

Glycogenic (energy storage source of glucose by the liver and the muscles) metabolized in muscle. Should always be in well balanced proportion with L-Leucine and L-Isoleucine.

- M -

Medium Chain Triglycerides, caprylic acid source. Provides twice the energy power of proteins and carbohydrates and reduces muscle protein breakdown during recovery and healing.

This mineral is used for muscle relaxation, acid and alkaline balance, enzyme activation, blood sugar, calcium and vitamin C metabolism.

This mineral is used for carbohydrate metabolism, enzyme activation, reproduction and sex hormone production.

A natural hormone available in synthetic form for supplementation. Used extensively as a sleep aid.

Macro minerals, such as Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, and Phosphorus, are utilized by the body in much larger amounts than trace minerals such as Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Chromium, Selenium, and Iodine. A deficiency in either category can have detrimental effects.

- O -

A naturally derived wheat germ oil concentrate which has been clinically proven to increase oxygen utilization when exercising.

- P -

This vitamin is used for protein metabolism, intestinal bacteria, absorption of ultraviolet rays, hair color restoration and blood cell formation.

Amino acids which are only partially separated from other amino acids. Usually found in chains and joined by peptide bound d.

This mineral is used for bone and tooth formation, cell growth and repair, heart muscle contractions, energy production, calcium and sugar metabolism, and kidney function.

Substance found in flowers and harvested by bees. Contains all 22 amino acids and 96 other nutrients. Helps boost energy and endurance and speeds up recovery time.

This mineral is used for muscle contraction and relaxation, enzyme activation, heartbeat, and growth.

A substance which is converted to another; i.e. Beta Carotene to Vitamin A as it is assimilated by the body.

Any of numerous naturally occurring extremely complex combinations of amino acids that contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, usu. sulfur, occas. phosphorus, iron, and/or other elements that are essential constituents of all living cells and are synthesized from raw materials by plants but assimilated as separate amino acids.

A natural extract from pine tress. Pycnogenol is a powerful antioxidant and the most readily absorbed and bio-available member of the bioflavonoid family

- S -

Primarily used as a remedy to various urinary and respiratory problems, the studies out now have concluded that it effectively treats prostate cancer and may even help restore hair.

Prevents or slows aging caused by antioxidants. Keeps youthful elasticity in tissues.

Contains mucopolysaccharides which may cause anti-angiogenic action that has been shown to be effective in preventing the formation of some solid tumors after extended use. May stimulate immune system functioning.

A chemical substance derived from the Sarsaparilla plant said to boost natural testosterone levels in the body.

This mineral is used for cellular fluid balance, and muscle retractions.

The U.S Food and Drug Administartion (FDA) recently approved that diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol which includes 25 grams of Soy Protein a day may reduce the risk of heart disease.

Plant hormones usually isolated from crude germ oils which aid the body in hormone production in fat metabolism.

Vital nutrients that are important metabolic activators, especially in the production of ATP, an energy compound.

This mineral is used for body tissue formation and collagen synthesis.

The joint action of agents so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects.

 - T -

Found in high concentrations in the tissues of the heart, skeletal muscle and central nervous system. Used to treat some forms of epilepsy by controlling seizures.

Hormone produced by both men and women which controls masculinization in the body and is the key hormone in muscle building.

- W -

White Willow Bark
Works smiliarly to aspirin. However, it is milder for the stomach and does not appear to cause some of the problems which aspirin can. It acts as an anti-inflammatory and is commonly used as the "aspirin component" in the ephederine, caffeine, aspirin (ECA) stack in fat burning supplements.

- Y -

A chemical substance derived from the Yohimbe said to boost natural testosterone levels in the body.

- Z -

This mineral is used for protein metabolism, enzyme activation, burn and wound healing, sex organ growth, and maturity, prostate gland function, reproductive organ growth and development.

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